【TED】男孩通过打游戏激起对学习的热情

2017年2月15日09时34分内容来源:TED正能量

演说者:Ali Carr-Chellman

演说题目:男孩通过打游戏激起对学习的热情

当男孩们从学校辍学,阿里·卡·切尔曼指出有三个原因,她还提出大胆的计划让男孩们重新获得学习的激情:将男孩文化带进教室,还有让男孩做他们想做的事的新准则,以及打游戏也可以寓教于乐。

So I'm here to tell you that we have a problem with boys, and it's a serious problem with boys. Their culture isn't working in schools, and I'm going to share with you ways that we can think about overcoming that problem.

我在这儿是想告诉大家 我们的对男孩的教育有问题,男孩子的教育是个严重问题。在学校,男孩文化没有形成。我要和大家分享我们关于这一问题的解决方法。


First, I want to start by saying, this is a boy, and this is a girl, and this is probably stereotypically what you think of as a boy and a girl. If I essentialize gender for you today, then you can dismiss what I have to say.

首先,我首先想说,这是个男孩,这是个女孩。这可能是你刻板的关于男孩和女孩的想法。如果我今天要讲性别的事,然后大家可能不会理睬我要说的。


So I'm not going to do that. I'm not interested in doing that. This is a different kind of boy and a different kind of girl. So the point here is that not all boys exist within these rigid boundaries of what we think of as boys and girls, and not all girls exist within those rigid boundaries of what we think of as girls.

所以我不打算这样做,我对此也不感兴趣。这是一个与众不同的男孩,这是一个与众不同的女孩。我要指明的是并不是所有的男孩是按我们所想的男孩和女孩那样的严格界限来划分的。也不是所有女孩可以用我们想象中的女孩的界限来严格定义。


But, in fact, most boys tend to be a certain way, and most girls tend to be a certain way. And the point is that, for boys, the way that they exist and the culture that they embrace isn't working well in schools now.

但事实上,多数男孩朝着他们自己的方向发展,大多数女孩也朝着另一方向发展.关键是,对男孩来说,对他们的认可和他们的这种男孩文化的认识目前在学校都没有过多了解。


How do we know that? The Hundred Girls Project tells us some really nice statistics. For example, for every 100 girls that are suspended from school, there are 250 boys that are suspended from school. For every 100 girls who are expelled from school, there are 335 boys who are expelled from school. For every 100 girls in special education, there are 217 boys. For every 100 girls with a learning disability, there are 276 boys.

我们怎么知道这个事实呢?100个女孩计划告诉了我们一些真正有用的数据。例如,当有100个女孩从学校停课,那就有250个男孩从学校停课。每当有100个女孩被学校开除,对应的男孩数是335个. 每当有100个女孩接受特殊教育,男孩数是217个。每100个女孩有学习障碍, 男孩的对应数是276个。


For every 100 girls with an emotional disturbance diagnosed, we have 324 boys. And by the way, all of these numbers are significantly higher if you happen to be black, if you happen to be poor, if you happen to exist in an overcrowded school. And if you are a boy, you're four times as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD -- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

每100女孩有情绪紊乱症状, 对应男孩数是324个。顺便提一下,如果发生在黑人小孩,贫穷的小孩身上, 假如发生在拥挤不堪的学校上学的小孩身上,这所有数据还得更高。如果你是个男孩,你比女孩更有四倍的可能性被诊断出ADHD症状- 注意力缺乏(或多动)症状。


Now there is another side to this. And it is important that we recognize that women still need help in school, that salaries are still significantly lower, even when controlled for job types, and that girls have continued to struggle in math and science for years.

现在讲到这还要提另一方面。我们还要重视地认识到在学校女性还需要帮助,女性的工资还是相对地低,甚至在工作种类上女性选择面也小, 女孩还一直在数学和科学领域中挣扎奋斗多年。


That's all true. Nothing about that prevents us from paying attention to the literacy needs of our boys between ages three and 13. And so we should.

这都是事实。但这不能阻止我们来关注年龄从3岁到13岁的男孩的扫盲问题。 我们应该关注这些男孩的问题。


In fact, what we ought to do is take a page from their playbook, because the initiatives and programs that have been set in place for women in science and engineering and mathematics are fantastic. They've done a lot of good for girls in these situations, and we ought to be thinking about how we can make that happen for boys too in their younger years.

事实上,我们要做的是站在男孩的立场来思考解决问题, 因为在学校已设置的初级教学和 课程计划适合女孩在科学,工程学和数学方面 有杰出表现。他们在这些情形下为女孩子 作了很多好事。我们该考虑一下我们该怎样让男孩在他们年少时也 受到同样的待遇。


Even in their older years, what we find is that there's still a problem. When we look at the universities, 60 percent of baccalaureate degrees are going to women now, which is a significant shift.

甚至在他们长大的岁月中,我们发现还是有问题的。当我们环顾大学,目前女性占60%的本科学历的人数,这是个巨大的转变。


And in fact, university administrators are a little uncomfortable about the idea that we may be getting close to 70 percent female population in universities. This makes university administrators very nervous, because girls don't want to go to schools that don't have boys.

实际上,大学的主管们对此感到有点不安,要是在大学,女性占总人数的70%。这数据让大学主管们非常紧张,因为女孩也不想去没有男孩的学校上学。


And so we're starting to see the establishment of men centers and men studies to think about how do we engage men in their experiences in the university. If you talk to faculty, they may say, "Ugh. Yeah, well, they're playing video games, and they're gambling online all night long, and they're playing World of Warcraft, and that's affecting their academic achievement." Guess what? Video games are not the cause. Video games are a symptom. They were turned off a long time before they got here.

所以我们开始看到 男性中心和男性研究的建立来思考怎样让男性在大学中活跃起来。 如果你跟教员谈话,他们会说,“啊,是的,男孩爱打视频游戏,他们通宵网上赌博,还爱玩魔兽世界。这些都影响了他们学术成绩。”猜怎么了?视频游戏不是主要原因。视频游戏是一个征兆。在男孩打游戏前,他们已经很长时间对学习都不感兴趣了。


So let's talk about why they got turned off when they were between the ages of three and 13. There are three reasons that I believe that boys are out of sync with the culture of schools today.

让我们谈谈,当他们在3岁到13岁间,他们为什么对学习不感兴趣呢?我认为有三个原因 让男孩们与今天的学校教育脱节。


The first is zero tolerance. A kindergarten teacher I know, her son donated all of his toys to her, and when he did, she had to go through and pull out all the little plastic guns. You can't have plastic knives and swords and axes and all that kind of thing in a kindergarten classroom. What is it that we're afraid that this young man is going to do with this gun?

第一个是零容忍。我认识的一名幼儿园教师,她儿子得上缴他所有的玩具,然后,她得一一检查把所有的小塑料枪都拿走。在幼儿园教室,不能有塑料刀,剑和斧子以及类似的东西。年轻人要是有枪,我们要担心的是什么?


I mean, really. But here he stands as testament to the fact that you can't roughhouse on the playground today. Now I'm not advocating for bullies. I'm not suggesting that we need to be allowing guns and knives into school. But when we say that an Eagle Scout in a high school classroom who has a locked parked car in the parking lot and a penknife in it has to be suspended from school, I think we may have gone a little too far with zero tolerance.

我是说,真的。但这儿男孩得面对的事实是今天他们不能在操场玩耍打闹。我这不是鼓动要持强凌弱。我也不是推荐 在学校容许男孩携带枪和小刀。但我想说高中班级中的老鹰童子军在停车场停放的车里要是有把刀,就得被勒令休学, 我认为我们可能在零容忍度方面做得有点过火。


Another way that zero tolerance lives itself out is in the writing of boys. In a lot of classrooms today you're not allowed to write about anything that's violent. You're not allowed to write about anything that has to do with video games -- these topics are banned.

另一种在生活中的零容忍度是有关男孩的写作。今天在很多课堂,你不能写有关暴力的任何东西。你不能写涉及视频游戏的任何东西,这些话题是被禁止的。


Boy comes home from school, and he says, "I hate writing." "Why do you hate writing, son? What's wrong with writing?" "Now I have to write what she tells me to write." "Okay, what is she telling you to write?" "Poems. I have to write poems. And little moments in my life. I don't want to write that stuff."

男孩从学校回来,他说,“我讨厌写作。”“儿子,你为什么讨厌写作?到底怎么了?”“现在我得写女教师吩咐我写的素材。”“哦,她让你写什么?”“诗歌。我得写诗歌。一生中我很少写这话题。 我不想写诗歌。”


"All right. Well, what do you want to write? What do you want to write about?" "I want to write about video games. I want to write about leveling-up. I want to write about this really interesting world. I want to write about a tornado that comes into our house and blows all the windows out and ruins all the furniture and kills everybody." "All right. Okay." You tell a teacher that, and they'll ask you, in all seriousness, "Should we send this child to the psychologist?" And the answer is no, he's just a boy. He's just a little boy. It's not okay to write these kinds of things in classrooms today.

“好吧。那你想写什么?有什么好写的?”“我想写有关视频游戏。我想写如何练级。我想写这真正有意思的游戏世界。我想写龙卷风来到我家,把所有的窗户吹跑, 毁坏所有的家具,然后杀死了所有人。”“好的。”你要告诉一位老师这个, 她们会非常严肃地会问你,“我们是不是应该送这小孩到心理学家那?”答案是不应该,他只是个男孩。他只是个小男孩。现在在课堂上还不能写这些东西。


So that's the first reason: zero tolerance policies and the way they're lived out. The next reason that boys' cultures are out of sync with school cultures: there are fewer male teachers. Anybody who's over 15 doesn't know what this means, because in the last 10 years, the number of elementary school classroom teachers has been cut in half. We went from 14 percent to seven percent.

所以这是第一个原因:零容忍政策和他们所处的环境不容许男孩文化的发生。第二个原因是男孩文化与学校文化相脱节:有很少的男性教师。任何超过15岁的人对此不了解,因为在过去10年里,男性在小学教师课堂里的数量已经被减半。男性比重从14% 降到7%。


That means that 93 percent of the teachers that our young men get in elementary classrooms are women. Now what's the problem with this? Women are great. Yep, absolutely.

这意味着93%的老师在年轻男孩上的小学课堂里是女老师。那么这又有什么问题呢?女老师很棒。是的,的确。


But male role models for boys that say it's all right to be smart -- they've got dads, they've got pastors, they've got Cub Scout leaders, but ultimately, six hours a day, five days a week they're spending in a classroom, and most of those classrooms are not places where men exist.

但是男性角色模范对于男孩来说,它可以让男孩变聪明。 男孩有父亲,有牧师, 和童子军导师,但归根结底,每天6小时,每周五天,男孩都在课堂上度过。多数那些课程不适合男人。


And so they say, I guess this really isn't a place for boys. This is a place for girls. And I'm not very good at this, so I guess I'd better go play video games or get into sports, or something like that, because I obviously don't belong here. Men don't belong here, that's pretty obvious.

如此,我猜这课堂也不太适合男孩去上。这课堂适合女孩上。 我却不擅长,我觉得我最好去玩视频游戏或者玩体育,或者类似的什么事,因为我很明显与学校文化格格不入。学校文化也不包括男人,这是很明显的。


So that may be a very direct way that we see it happen. But less directly, the lack of male presence in the culture -- you've got a teachers' lounge, and they're having a conversation about Joey and Johnny who beat each other up on the playground. "What are we going to do with these boys?" The answer to that question changes depending on who's sitting around that table. Are there men around that table? Are there moms who've raised boys around that table? You'll see, the conversation changes depending upon who's sitting around the table.

所以这可能是一种很直接的方式让我们看到正在发生的事实。但不那么直接地,是在学校文化中缺少男性--你要是待在教师休息室,老师们正谈论在操场打起架来的乔伊和约翰。 “我们要拿这些男孩怎么办?”问题的答案取决于谁当时在场。有任何男性在场吗?这些孩子的母亲在场吗?大家可以看出,这谈论会随谁当时在场而改变。


Third reason that boys are out of sync with school today: kindergarten is the old second grade, folks. We have a serious compression of the curriculum happening out there. When you're three, you better be able to write your name legibly, or else we'll consider it a developmental delay. By the time you're in first grade, you should be able to read paragraphs of text with maybe a picture, maybe not, in a book of maybe 25 to 30 pages.

第三个原因是男孩与我们今日的学校相脱节:幼儿园是一种过时的脱节教育。我们教学课程中有严重的压缩问题。当孩子三岁时,他们最好能清楚地写下他们的名字, 要不我们会认为这是发育迟缓。到孩子小学一年级时,他们应该能读带图的,或者不带图的课文里的段落,这本书大概有25-30页。


If you don't, we're probably going to be putting you into a Title 1 special reading program. And if you ask Title 1 teachers, they'll tell you they've got about four or five boys for every girl that's in their program, in the elementary grades.

如果孩子做不到,老师很可能把这孩子送到编号一的特殊阅读计划班。如果问问这班的老师们,她们会告诉你:在这个低年级的特殊阅读计划班里,每当有1个女孩就对等的有4到5个男孩。


The reason that this is a problem is because the message that boys are getting is "you need to do what the teacher asks you to do all the time." The teacher's salary depends on "No Child Left Behind" and "Race to the Top" and accountability and testing and all of this.

这问题是因为男孩得到的教育是“在上学间,你就需要做老师吩咐你做的事。”老师的工资取决于让学生考试名列前茅,不让一个孩子掉队,并负有责任和大大小小测试以及类似这样的事。


So she has to figure out a way to get all these boys through this curriculum -- and girls. This compressed curriculum is bad for all active kids. And what happens is, she says, "Please, sit down, be quiet, do what you're told, follow the rules, manage your time, focus, be a girl." That's what she tells them.

所以她得想方设法地让这些男孩和女孩通过这课程。这压缩课程对所有活跃调皮的孩来说是糟糕的。接下来发生的是,她说,“请坐下来,安静点,听我说的做,遵守规矩,抓紧时间,注意一下,要乖点像个女孩。” 这就是女老师让男孩做的事。


Indirectly, that's what she tells them. And so this is a very serious problem. Where is it coming from? It's coming from us. (Laughter) We want our babies to read when they are six months old.

间接地,她指示了男孩该做什么。所以这是个很严重的问题。这是从哪开始的呢?它是源于我们自己。(笑声) 我们想让我们的宝贝在他们六个月大时就能读。


Have you seen the ads? We want to live in Lake Wobegon where every child is above average, but what this does to our children is really not healthy. It's not developmentally appropriate, and it's particularly bad for boys.

你看过广告吗? 我们想住在沃比冈湖,那里每一个孩子的智商都高于平均水平。但是这对我们的孩子来说是非常不健康的。这是种不良发育,特别对男孩来说有不好的影响。


So what do we do? We need to meet them where they are. We need to put ourselves into boy culture. We need to change the mindset of acceptance in boys in elementary schools. More specifically, we can do some very specific things. We can design better games.

我们能做什么呢? 我们要迎合男孩们的需求。我们要置身于男孩文化中。我们要改变小学对男孩子一成不变地思维模式。更具体地,我们可以做些非常具体的事。我们可以设计更好玩的游戏。


Most of the educational games that are out there today are really flashcards. They're glorified drill and practice. They don't have the depth, the rich narrative that really engaging video games have, that the boys are really interested in.

今天的多数教育游戏是过时的,它们只是卡片游戏。它们都是很耗人的和需要人们的耐心来玩。它们没有真正打电子游戏时的那种耐玩性,丰富的游戏互动性,这些才会让男孩们真正感兴趣。


So we need to design better games. We need to talk to teachers and parents and school board members and politicians. We need to make sure that people see that we need more men in the classroom. We need to look carefully at our zero tolerance policies. Do they make sense? We need to think about how to uncompress this curriculum if we can, trying to bring boys back into a space that is comfortable for them. All of those conversations need to be happening.

所以我们要设计更好玩的游戏 我们要和老师,家长,学校董事会成员和政治家对话。 我们必须确保让人们看到,我们要在课堂上有更多的男性老师。我们要格外关注我们的零容忍政策。它们是否合理?我们要思考我们该怎样解压这课程, 我们尽量努力让男孩回到 适合他们待的地方学校来 这所有的对话都要发生。


There are some great examples out there of schools -- the New York Times just talked about a school recently. A game designer from the New School put together a wonderful video gaming school. But it only treats a few kids, and so this isn't very scalable.

这里也有一些很好的学校-- 最近纽约时报就谈到一个学校。新学校的游戏设计者组合了一所非常棒的视频游戏学校。但它只针对个别的孩子。这种学校非常稀缺。


We have to change the culture and the feelings that politicians and school board members and parents have about the way we accept and what we accept in our schools today. We need to find more money for game design. Because good games, really good games, cost money, and World of Warcraft has quite a budget. Most of the educational games do not.

所以我们得改变学校里的男孩文化和改变政治家,学校董事会成员和父母对待男孩文化的想法, 它是有关今天在我们学校,我们已接受的这种男孩文化方式和我们要去接受的男孩文化。我们要给游戏设计投资更多的钱。 因为好游戏,非常好的游戏是要花钱的, 魔兽世界有相当多的预算。大多数教育游戏没有那么多预算。


Where we started: my colleagues -- Mike Petner, Shawn Vashaw, myself -- we started by trying to look at the teachers' attitudes and find out how do they really feel about gaming, what do they say about it. And we discovered that they talk about the kids in their school, who talk about gaming, in pretty demeaning ways.

我们从哪里开始呢: 我同事--迈克·派特呢Mike Petner,肖恩·瓦绍Shawn Vashaw和我, 我们开始了解老师对此的态度 并找出她们真正对游戏的想法,对此她们想说什么。我们发现 她们在学校谈到男孩 打游戏, 他们是用一种非常贬损的口吻。


They say, "Oh, yeah. They're always talking about that stuff. They're talking about their little action figures and their little achievements or merit badges, or whatever it is that they get. And they're always talking about this stuff." And they say these things as if it's okay.

她们说,“哦,是的。他们常常谈论视频游戏。他们谈论着他们的小英雄人物和他们的网上小成绩或者获得的徽章, 或者任何他们赢得的奖励。他们常常谈论这些东西。”她们说这些话好像是没关系似的。


But if it were your culture, think of how that might feel. It's very uncomfortable to be on the receiving end of that kind of language. They're nervous about anything that has anything to do with violence because of the zero tolerance policies. They are sure that parents and administrators will never accept anything.

但如果这是你的文化呢,想想你会感觉如何? 老师的那种语言对于男孩这些接收者们来说, 听上去是非常不舒服的。老师们对任何涉及暴力的东西都感到焦虑,这是因为零容忍的政策。男孩知道他们的父母和校官绝不会接受这一切。


So we really need to think about looking at teacher attitudes and finding ways to change the attitudes so that teachers are much more open and accepting of boy cultures in their classrooms. Because, ultimately, if we don't, then we're going to have boys who leave elementary school saying, "Well I guess that was just a place for girls. It wasn't for me. So I've got to do gaming, or I've got to do sports." If we change these things, if we pay attention to these things, and we re-engage boys in their learning, they will leave the elementary schools saying, "I'm smart."Thank you.

所以我们的确要思考审视老师的态度,找到改变这态度的方法 好让老师更加宽容,以开放的态度 来接受在课堂上的这种男孩文化。 因为,最终,我们要是不改变, 就会有离开小学的男孩子说, “好吧,我猜学校只是适合女生待; 并不适合我。 所以我要去打游戏,或者玩体育。” 如果我们改变这些事,如果我们关注这些事, 我们重新唤起男孩学习的热情, 他们在离开小学时,说,“我变聪明了。”谢谢。


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